Tuesday, October 23, 2018

HBS Act 2.2.2 Secret to Signals. What is a neuron? vs How is a neuron specialized?

Oligodendrocytes
  • main function is to insulate the axons (the long slender projection of a nerve cell that conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body or soma) almost exclusively in the central nervous system in the higher vertebrates
  • The multiple layers of wrapping of oligodendrocytes around the axons of the central nervous system forms the mylein sheath
  • The “feet” of a single oligodendrocyte can extend its processes to 50 axons, wrapping approximately 1 μm of myelin sheath around each axon
  • can form a segment of myelin for several adjacent axons
Schwann cells
  • perform a similar function in the peripheral nervous system
  • can wrap around only one axon
  • there are two types: myelinating and nonmyelinating

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